自由公园

景观 / 居住环境 2021-10-25 22:03

自由公园
The Freedom Park: //hapo

//hapo是梦想的Khoi词。这座博物馆位于南非茨瓦内著名的自由公园,由格林尼科+纽顿景观建筑师事务所与合作建筑师事务所(OCA)共同设计,新博物馆由此命名。建筑物及其景观环境的简介在其上下文中相当复杂,但围绕着Khoi谚语的理念://hapo ge//hapo tama/haohasib dis tamas ka i bo;翻译成英语作为一个梦想不是一个梦想,直到它是一个梦想的社会。该公园是萨尔沃科普山“花园”中的“花园”之地,反过来,也是南非所在的广阔花园中的“花园”之地。它不是一座传统的胜利或受害者纪念碑,而是一个愿景,旨在让南非全体人民都参与到一个项目中来,该项目旨在主张并表达全国人民强烈感受到的恢复和扩大长期被否认的非洲声音的需要。
//hapo is the Khoi word for dream. It is the name given to the newly opened museum at the prestigious Freedom Park in Tshwane, South Africa, designed by GREENinc + Newtown Landscape Architects together with Office of Collaborative Architects (OCA). The brief for the buildings and their landscape setting is rather complicated in its context but revolves around the idea of the Khoi proverb: //hapo ge //hapo tama /haohasib dis tamas ka i bo; translated to English as A dream is not a dream until it is a dream of the community. The park is a place of ‘gardens’ within the ‘garden’ of the Salvokop hill and, in turn, within the vast garden that South Africa is. Rather than a conventional monument of victory or victimhood, it encapsulates a vision which seeks to embrace all the people of South Africa in a project aimed at asserting and giving expression to an intensely felt need throughout the country to restore and amplify the long-denied African voice.

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park: //hapo

© GREENinc

//哈波是自由公园游客的第一个到达点。正是在这里,游客开始沿着Vhuwaelo漫步,这是一次冥想之旅,沿着Salvokop山盘旋而上,像项链上的珠子一样将“花园”空间串连在一起//hapo是这些“花园”中的第一个,这是一个最初设想为巨石和变形岩石层的景观,与创世故事相呼应。
//hapo is the first point of arrival for the visitor to Freedom Park. It is here that the visitor begins their walk along the Vhuwaelo, a contemplative journey which spirals up the Salvokop hill, stringing together ‘garden’ spaces like beads on a necklace. //hapo is the first of these ‘gardens’, a landscape originally conceived as boulders and metamorphosed layers of rock that talk to the creation story.

向东移动时,游客会遇到//Hapo三个核心外部空间中的第一个——土著知识花园或疗愈花园。一条连接式水道将游客引入这一安静、沉思的空间,向东眺望着城市的联合大厦和美好的未来。随着水和小路的汇合,游客被鼓励居住和探索这个切入地球的简单空间,并与丰富的药用植物挂毯接触。土著知识是非洲的一个普遍方面。因此,在花园和Salvokop上广泛使用药用植物,植物种类的选择和位置由在该领域具有广泛知识的传统治疗师指导。
Moving eastwards the visitor encounters the first of three core external spaces in //Hapo – the Garden of Indigenous Knowledge or the Healing Garden. An articulated channel of water leads the visitor into this quiet, contemplative space which gazes eastwards over the city towards the Union Buildings and a propitious future. As water and pathway merge, the visitor is encouraged to dwell and explore this simple space cut into the earth and engage with a rich tapestry of medicinal plants. Indigenous knowledge is an all-pervading aspect of Africa. Accordingly the use of medicinal plants in the garden and on Salvokop is extensive and selection and location of species to plant was guided by traditional healers who have extensive knowledge in this area.

第二个核心空间Sentlhaga(或儿童花园)紧紧地夹在康复花园和“巨石”之间。一系列层叠的墙壁和露台为植物和孩子的想象力提供了庇护所。图腾、生动的水、开阔的草坪和隐蔽的小径为孩子们提供了和风景和彼此接触的空间。一个小草铺的圆形剧场和橡胶表面为管理员和导游提供了进一步的机会,向孩子们传达博物馆中涉及的概念(松散的道具将用于帮助讲故事——一种非洲传统的交流方式)。
The second of the core spaces, Sentlhaga (or children’s garden), is held tightly between the Healing Garden and ‘Boulders’. A series of cascading walls and terraces provide refuge for both plants and the child’s imagination. Totems, animated water, open lawns and hidden pathways provide space for children to engage with the landscape and each other. A small grassed amphitheatre and rubberised surfaces provide further opportunity for caretakers and guides to convey concepts dealt with in the museum to the children (loose props will be used to assist with storytelling – a traditional way of communicating in Africa).

当游客离开疗伤花园时,他/她转了180度,朝着西面的方向返回到巨石和博物馆入口。通过这种方式,游客在进入现场时不会被迫进入建筑物,而是可以在缓慢穿过景观时首先吸收和欣赏其环境,从而强调“花园”而不是建筑物,这是游客体验中的一个重要主题。
As the visitor leaves the Healing Garden, s/he makes a 180° turn and heads back in a westerly direction towards the Boulders and the museum entrance. In this way, the visitor is not forced into a building upon entering the site but is allowed to first absorb and appreciate their context as they move slowly through the landscape, thus emphasising the ‘garden’ rather than the building as an important theme in the visitors experience.

由于博物馆被视为一系列应该相互联系的时代,因此需要将巨石聚集成一个圆形排列,以便在展品和故事空间之间进行交叉流通。这为中央庭院空间、第三个核心外部空间和//hapo的字面核心提供了机会。空间本身很简单——均匀的表面上点缀着大量的热带草原植被,它们在巨石的保护下避难。这一简单的解决方案不仅为每个巨石中的开口以及其中的展品提供了清晰的通道线,而且在土堆内和周围建立了大小空间,在那里可以进行故事讲述、舞蹈、聚会和临时展览。位于“巨石之间的裂缝”中的植物也参考了随着生命进化而开始在地球上生长的第一批植物。
Because the museum was conceived as a series of epochs which should be interconnected, the Boulders needed to be clustered in a circular arrangement to provide for cross circulation between exhibits and story-telling spaces. This provided the opportunity for a Central Courtyard space, the third of the core external spaces, and the literal heart of //hapo. The space itself is simple – a uniform surface punctuated by mounds of abundant Savannah vegetation taking refuge in the protection of the Boulders. This simple resolution not only provides clear access lines to openings in each of the boulders, and the exhibits that lie within, but also establishes small and large spaces in and around the mounds where storytelling, dancing, gathering, and temporary exhibit can take place. The plants located in the ‘cracks between the boulders’ also make reference to the first plants that started growing on earth as life evolved.

因为,无论是从概念上还是从程序上,构成//哈波景观的空间和场所都被视为巨石(和博物馆)的延伸,因此适当选择材料至关重要。为此,选择了红粘土砖,因为它开辟了以统一方式处理垂直面和水平面的可能性,将直接景观与巨石的铜和山上的红土连接起来。生锈的钢材、木材、未加工的混凝土饰面和低水平的照明都对这个调色板起到了补充和强调作用,进一步增强了隐喻的效果。循环路线、聚集空间(覆盖和开放)、视点和门槛被切割到这个“粘土状”基底中,形成一系列坡道、梯田和飞地,从而在裂缝和裂缝中为山体植被生根提供机会。当这片北向山坡上的原始草原植被向下移动,拥抱着哈波,随着时间的推移,巨石慢慢地与花园融为一体。
Because, both conceptually and programmatically, the spaces and places that make up the landscape of //hapo are considered as extensions of the Boulders (and museum), the appropriate selection of materials was critical. To this end, the red clay brick was selected as it opened up the possibilities for treating vertical and horizontal planes in a uniform manner, connecting the immediate landscape to the copper of the Boulders and the red soils of the hill. Rusted steel, timber, raw concrete finishes and low level lighting compliment and accentuate this palette, furthering the effects of the metaphor. Circulation routes, gathering spaces (covered and open-to-air), viewpoints and thresholds are cut into this ‘clay-like’ base, creating a series of ramps, terraces and enclaves, and in turn providing opportunity, in the cracks and crevices, for the vegetation of the hill to take root. And as this indigenous savannah vegetation of the north facing slopes moves down the hill, embracing //hapo, the Boulders, over the course of time, slowly, become one with the garden.

游客可以从各个露台和庭院的任何一个开口处离开博物馆,从众多重新连接Vhuwaelo的通道中选择一条,继续他们的上山之旅。当这条小路向东离开//哈波时,它离开了地面,以应对在陡坡上航行的复杂性,并为//哈波、萨尔沃科普和城市提供可爱的有利位置。
Exiting the museum at any one of the openings which break out onto various terraces and courtyards, the visitor may choose to take one of the many pathways that re-join the Vhuwaelo and continue their journey up the hill. As the pathway leaves //hapo to the east it leaves the ground itself in order to deal with the complexities of navigating a steep slope and to afford lovely vantage points of //hapo, Salvokop and the city.

正是在路径、想法和复杂性的交叉点上,机会,尤其是设计机会,最常被发现。随着南非景观建筑继续吸引人们并与他们对抗他们对景观的看法及其在其中的位置,挑战仍然是为人们创造特殊的居住空间,认同并赋予价值和意义。
It is at the intersection of pathways, ideas and complexities that opportunities, and design opportunities in particular, are most often found. As South African landscape architecture continues to engage and confront people about their perceptions of landscape and their place within it, the challenge remains to create exceptional spaces for people to inhabit, identify with and assign to value and meaning.

为了给游客提供一个在景观中发现意义的真正机会,设计师们努力超越了简单地命名景观中任意放置的物体,这些物体在某种程度上希望与文化相关或易于接近。相反,通过让场地的复杂性和概要来指导设计,这一过程变成了土地的展开,以发现其沉积,并为理解和体验其隐藏价值开辟新的可能性。通过追踪其轮廓,在一个很像雕刻雕塑的过程中切割和塑造景观,新的图案产生了复杂和独特的形式和空间。场所营造成为使这些空间舒适的过程,提供元素保护,提供休息、移动、连接、聚集、玩耍、探索、凝视、反思、学习等机会。最终,意义和后续叙事成为人与人之间互动的产物,人与景观。思想和情感的反应是通过丰富的景观的层次感激发出来的。
At the threshold between city and park, the ‘gardens’ of //hapo find themselves at such an intersection on so many levels – ecological contrasts, economical differences, cultural richness and symbolism, intellectual debate and historical narrative.
In seeking to provide visitors with a real opportunity to find meaning in landscape, the designers pushed to move beyond simply naming arbitrarily placed objects in a landscape that are on some level hoped to be culturally relevant or accessible. Rather, by allowing the complexities of the site and the brief to guide the design, the process became an unfolding of the land to find its sedimentation and open up new possibilities to understanding and experiencing its hidden values. Through tracing its contours and cutting and moulding the landscape in a process much like carving a sculpture, new patterns gave rise to complex and contextually unique forms and spaces. Place making became a process of making these spaces comfortable, providing protection from the elements, providing opportunity for resting, moving, connection, gathering, playing, exploring, gazing, reflection, learning, etc. Ultimately, meaning and subsequent narrative becomes the product of interaction between person and person, people and landscape. Thought and emotional response are provoked through the unlayering of the richness of the landscape.

在Landezine上看格林公司的自由公园的其余部分

Landscape Architect: GREENinc as part of NBGM (Newtown Landscape Architects&GREENincLandscape Architecture&Gallery MomoJoint Venture)
Architect: Office of Collaborative Architects (OCA)
Location: Salvokop, Pretoria, South Africa
Date of completion: 2011
Landscape Budget: ZAR 38 million
Area: 15 hectares
Client: The Freedom Park Trust
Text & photos: GREENinc
*This project received an ILASA Award of Excellence in 2013
See the rest of the Freedom Park by GREENinc on Landezine

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自由公园