The Freedom Park

图库/公园广场/2018-6-26 18:11 563 0 收藏

The Freedom Park

格林尼治:自由公园是Nelson Mandela总统授权的一个项目,它是种族隔离后发生的真相和和解委员会进程的自然结果。它的愿景围绕着四个关键理念:和解、国家建设、人民自由和人性。造景的目的是要认识到这些思想的精神渊源,并以物理形式象征性地表现它们。自由公园履行了一个记忆花园的文化角色——一个天然的本土花园,讲述了南非向自由发展的故事。它的目的是作为一个自然的象征赔偿,愈合的象征,一个象征的清洁和一个地方,谁的灵魂谁失去了生命在寻求自由可以休息。它也是一个朝圣、复兴和希望所有南非人和人类的地方。
GREENinc: The Freedom Park is a project mandated by President Nelson Mandela as the natural outcome of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission process that occurred after the fall of Apartheid. Its vision is structured around four key ideas: reconciliation, nation building, freedom of people and humanity. The making of the landscape seeks to recognise the spiritual origins of these ideas, and manifest them symbolically in physical form. The Freedom Park fulfils the cultural role of a Garden of Remembrance – a natural indigenous garden telling the story of South Africa’s progression to freedom. It is intended as a natural symbol for reparation, a symbol of healing, a symbol of cleansing and a place where the souls of those who lost their lives in the quest for freedom can rest. It is also a place of pilgrimage, renewal and hope for all South Africans and mankind.

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

© GREENinc

The Freedom Park, situated on Salvokop in Tshwane, was conceived as a narrative, a ‘journey to freedom’ informed by traditional African culture and Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) that have not been acknowledged through past knowledge or records. Five key elements, //hapo, Isivivane, S’khumbuto, Moshate, and Tiva form the basis of this narrative and are linked by a wheelchair friendly pathway system that winds its way up the hill. These elements have been constructed over a number of phases and the entire project is due to be completed by mid 2011.

The site

石英岩脊形成了自然的“基础”自由公园,是一个非常重要的区域资产,其特征是独特的植物物种组成,丰富的生物多样性。该遗址的生态敏感性非常高,并在自然状态下尽可能地保护山丘。一个文化的例子涉及与社区领袖举行访问土著知识的会议。传统的治疗师提出了一个特殊的要求,即祖鲁的埃克卡拉巴树,因为他们认为如果这些树被移除,就等于说夸祖鲁人/ Natal人不能说祖鲁语。此外,出于这个原因,南部斜坡的干预被保持在最低限度,以保持这种独特的峡谷和山脊系统的自然特征,这是一种从南部到茨瓦内的城市。当植物被移除的时候,它们被拯救并被安置在一个保育圃中,然后返回到景观中。
A quartzite ridge forms the natural ‘foundation’ to Freedom Park and is a vitally important regional asset characterised by a unique composition of plant species, rich in biodiversity. The ecological sensitivity of the site is very high and care was taken to conserve as much of the hill as possible in its natural state. A cultural case in point relates to a session with community leaders held to access indigenous knowledge. The traditional healers put in a special request that Protea caffra trees, isiQalaba in Zulu, be left as they were as they believed that if these trees were removed, it would be the same as saying that the people of KwaZulu/Natal must not speak Zulu. Also, for this reason interventions on the southern slope were kept to a minimum to retain the natural character of this unique system of valleys and ridges that dominate the view as one approaches the City of Tshwane from the south. Where it was inevitable that plants be removed, these were rescued and housed in a holding nursery before being returned to the landscape.

Landscaping

景观美化包括一个自然的,象征性的花园,有许多不同的空间和地方的概念,形成了上述五个要素的设置。除了保留该植物的大部分植被外,它的理念是引进具有传统价值的植物——幸福、药用和象征性。植物被仔细地选择与在整个地点发生的天然植物群落有关。他们也被传统的治疗者在使用和地点上的文化适宜性测试过。在该项目中使用了超过250种本土植物,除了它的学名外,每种植物都以英文、南非荷兰语和南非官方九种非洲语言中的至少一种命名。
Landscaping the site embraces the concept of a natural, symbolic garden with many different spaces and places, which form the setting for the five key elements mentioned above. In addition to retaining as much of the site’s vegetation, the idea was to bring in plants that have traditional values – wellbeing, medicinal and symbolic. Plants were carefully chosen to relate to the natural plant communities that occur across the site. They were also ‘tested’ by traditional healers for their cultural appropriateness in use and location. Over 250 species of indigenous plants were used in the project and each plant, in addition to its scientific name, has been named in English, Afrikaans and at least one of the official nine African languages of South Africa.

通过修复和保护,景观介入修复了原本的疤痕和象征性的历史。随着新的种植业的发展,自由公园的建筑元素将出现在山上,并与之相伴——就像许多历史性的非洲干涉,如伟大的津巴布韦和Thulamela。外来的树木被移除(或正在被移出),入侵物种随着时间的推移通过管理被淘汰。稀有的物种生长在一个专门为该项目创建的现场苗圃,以建立一个景观调色板,它提供了比原来的网站提供的更广阔的生态。新的土著物种以大胆、戏剧性和实用的方式被使用——再一次象征性地通过人类表达(设计)来美化景观。
Through rehabilitation and conservation, the landscape intervention heals the original scars of the site and symbolically, of history. As the new planting grows in, the architectural elements of Freedom Park will appear as to emerge from the hill and be one with it – like much of historic African interventions such as Great Zimbabwe and Thulamela. Exotic trees were removed (or are being removed) from the site, and invasive species are being eliminated over time through management. Rare, species were grown at an on-site nursery created specifically for the project to establish a landscape palette that offers a much broader ecology than what the original site had to offer. New indigenous species were used in a bold, dramatic and pragmatic way – again, symbolic healing of the landscape through human expression (design).

The landscape design is also informed by traditional forms, languages and principles of African architecture and space i.e. curved lines and rounded forms are typical elements. Natural and local materials were used as much as possible, and plants transplanted to new locations to avoid construction footprints.

叙事
The Narrative

//hapo (‘dream’, which has been drawn from a Khoi proverb “//hapo ge //hapo tama /haohasib dis tamas ka i bo” that translates into “A dream is not a dream until it is shared by the entire community.”), an interactive exhibition space where the story of Southern Africa, dating back 3.6 billion years, will unfold in narrative and visual form, is located at the entrance to the park and ties the urban fabric of the adjacent community into the natural environment of the Salvopkop hill. Sculpted from steel frames and copper sheeting and shaped to resemble boulders at the foot of the hill, the ‘exhibit containers’ were designed to merge into the natural landscape of the hill. To this end the indigenous vegetation already growing on the hill has been be encouraged to ‘embrace’ //hapo and incorporate the containers as one of many elements within a larger garden. In the immediate vicinity of //hapo, a ramped pathway navigates the steep topography around the building, creating spaces within its folds and carrying the ‘boulder’ language set by the containers into the site beyond. The material palette is simple, the lines between architecture and landscape blurred as vertical surfaces fold seamlessly outwards over pathway and wall, allowing the building to ‘root’ itself in place and physically embody the notion of IKS. At its western end, and at the literal and spiritual heart of the buildings the courtyard garden functions as a space that links the various ‘container’ entrances with each other as well as a place where small groups can gather and participate in storytelling. To the east and below lies the Sentlhaga (nest), a walled garden which provides a safe and comfortable space for children to experience the themes of Freedom Park from their perspective. As the walls of the Sentlhaga extend eastward they open into a soft bowl-like space in which an extensive collection of traditional healing plants will be grown to educate people in natural heritage.

//HAPO连接到公园的其他元素,通过一个系统的路径导航萨尔科普山的斜坡。他们提供了戏剧性的观点在各个方向,但特别是在整个城市比勒陀利亚到联合大厦位于北部。在山坡北侧的路径上选择了一个甲板溶液。这两个城市的视觉冲击最小化,并在下面的地球轻轻触摸,允许自然植被下和周围的结构信封游客,提高经验和框架视图。沿着通道,一些安静的空间,被称为VHuWelo,主要由天然材料收集并从附近刮掉,已经被雕刻成允许完全逃逸到自然环境中。这些空间被仔细地识别在远离主干道的地方,以保持和平,在那里现存的大树可以完全遮蔽城市的景色。
//hapo is connected to the other elements of the park by a system of pathways which navigate the slopes of the Salvokop hill. They provide dramatic views in all directions but especially across the city of Pretoria to the Union Buildings which lie to the north. A decked solution was selected for the pathways on the northern side of the hill. This both minimizes the visual impact from the city and touchs lightly on the earth below, allowing the natural vegetation under and around the structure to envelope the visitor, enhancing experience and framing views. Along the pathways a number of quiet spaces, known as the Vhuawelo and composed primarily of natural materials collected and scraped from the immediate vicinity, have been sculpted to allow complete escape into the natural environment. These spaces were carefully identified on site far enough from the main pathway to remain peaceful and where large existing trees could completely shield off views to the city.

Along the southern site of the hill the visitor passes along Mveledzo, a heavier stone and concrete pathway that assumes an atmosphere of contemplation, to reach a pause area created to offer visitors a chance to rest before making the final ascent to S’khumbuto. Water has been used here and extensively across the site because of its vitally important implication in African traditional culture. The symbolism of water is common to all tribes and plays a significant role not only in African belief systems but also in Western thought and religion. Traditionally water relates to healing, there is also the belief that the spirits of ancestors reside in water and that the first person emerged from reeds growing in water. In Christianity, water is used as a symbol of purification or cleansing of sin through baptism, while local tribes people believe that water is the giver of life – that life comes from water i.e. the child in the womb. This metaphor is clearly expressed in this pause area which in plan has a womb like appearance and spatially envelopes the visitor.

'Kunbto(斯瓦提单词的纪念或记忆)也有荣誉,赞美和庆祝的内涵。它包括几个组成部分:名字墙、圣殿、芦苇、领袖画廊和莫斯菲。圣殿的北侧从景观中出现,形成了圆形剧场的背景,它在草地上的梯田上流动,然后在2002岁的Thabo Mbeki总统种植的野生橄榄树(Oela EuraaaSuppa非洲)终止。标志着自由公园建设的开始。永恒的火焰在庇护所的底部燃烧,发出温暖的辉光进入周围的水。从总统树到圆形剧场,包括多肉植物,主要是该地区的芦荟(Aloe Africana,Aloe cryptopoda,Aloe peglerae和Aloe pretoriensis),以及当地的维拉草(弯角草属,草根,莱曼尼亚娜和Eragrostis racemosa)。一个自然种植,创造了一个视觉链接到原来的天然脊超出它。
S’khumbuto (the Swati word for a memorial or remembering) also has the connotation of honouring, praising and celebrating. It comprises several components: the Wall of Names, Sanctuary, Reeds, Gallery of Leaders and Moshate. On the northern side of S’khumbuto the Sanctuary emerges from the landscape to form the backdrop to the amphitheatre, which flows in grassed terraces onto the roof of the Sanctuary before terminating at a Wild Olive tree (Olea europaea subsp africana) planted by then President Thabo Mbeki in 2002 to signify the beginning of the construction of The Freedom Park. An eternal flame burns at the base of the Sanctuary, sending a warm glow into it and onto the surrounding water. Sweeping down from the President’s Tree to the amphitheatre and comprising succulent plants, largely the aloes of the region (Aloe Africana, Aloe cryptopoda, Aloe peglerae and Aloe pretoriensis), and indigenous veldt grasses (Eragrostis curvula, Eragrostis, lehmanniana and Eragrostis racemosa) is a swathe of natural planting that creates a visual link to the original natural ridge beyond it.

To mark The Freedom Park from a distance a noticeable vertical element was designed into S’khumbuto. The notion behind the element was derived from the African philosophy of creation that acknowledges reeds as the conduit to life. The idea of a rising line of reeds was embraced to give a sense of progress in the struggle for freedom and to celebrate hope for the future. Two inner arcs of reeds symbolize communication between earth and heaven. In African tradition, particularly in the Swazi and Zulu cultures, reeds are used to communicate with the deity through the ancestors.

The reeds are a transparent element encircling the top of the hill and the Wall of Names; drawing a line against the horizon while maintaining the visual outline of the hilltop. The reeds are actually stainless steel ‘masts’ that range in height from 1 m to 34 m. The challenge was that these sculptures had to consider the relationship to landscape, the project’s content and the visual manifestation of ‘monument’. The reeds are perhaps the element of the project that most epitomises the opportunity and restrictions inherent in the blurring of landscape, art and architecture. The reeds are the project’s main iconic component.

莫斯达夫(Sotho Word,意思是酋长的住所)位于K'Buto的西端,在那里形成了政要的入口。一种宏伟的芦荟(Aloe marlothii)的森林,通常用于传统家宅的入口。这是一个引人注目的植物,强调了莫斯达夫的入口。
The Moshate (the Sotho word that means the residential place of the chief) is located at the western end of S’khumbuto where it forms an entrance for dignitaries. A ‘forest’ of majestic Aloes (Aloe marlothii), a plant often used at the main access points to traditional homesteads. It is a striking plant that emphasises the entrance of Moshate.

The Uitspanplek (Afrikaans word for resting place), which deliberately breaks from the design narrative of the rest of the site, is a picnic area located on the northern side of the hill and which offers beautiful views across the valley to the Union Buildings where President Mandela was inaugurated in 1994. It is a secluded resting place with shade trees (Acacia xanthophloea), water and birdlife, surrounded by existing indigenous bush and veldt grasses inter-planted with rescued herbaceous grassland plants, such as Red Paintbrush (Scadoxus puniceus), Tumbleweed (Boophone disticha) renowned for their medicinal properties and grassland orchid species (Eulophia sp.).

Conclusion

South African landscape architecture has few examples where African culture and landscape design inform each other to create a place that engages people spiritually and confronts them about their perceptions of the past and visions for the future. The design challenge was to introduce people to African culture, symbolism and spiritual meaning through a landscape narrative that expresses the place in an abstract manner – so as not to alienate any one cultural group. In seeking to meet this challenge, the landscape architects integrated The Freedom Park’s physical elements into an already beautiful site to create a landscape that resonates with universal symbolic and spiritual meaning – yet which is unashamedly founded in African cultural expression.

Landscape Architect: GREENinc as part of NBGM (NLA Bagale GREENinc MOMO)

Project team:

建筑师:协同建筑师事务所(OCA)
Architect: Office of Collaborative Architects (OCA)

Consulting Engineer: Aurecon

项目名称:自由公园-中间阶段
Project title: The Freedom Park – Intermediate Phase

地点:萨尔沃科普,比勒陀利亚,Gauteng
Location: Salvokop, Pretoria, Gauteng

竣工日期:2007
Date of completion: 2007

委托人:自由公园信托基金
Client: The Freedom Park Trust

文本和照片:绿色
Text & photos: GREENinc

*This project received an ILASA Award of Excellence in 2009

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